Its latitude puts part of the country in direct contact with the typical southern end of the Atlantic polar jet. [35], The National Museum of Natural Sciences is the National Museum of Natural History of Spain. Phiros became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Spain's geographic location, popular coastlines, diverse landscapes, historical legacy, vibrant culture, and excellent infrastructure has made the country's international tourist industry among the largest in the world. ¡España te está esperando!. A global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Athanagild, having risen against King Agila, called in the Byzantines and, in payment for the succour they gave him, ceded to them the maritime places of the southeast (554). The Spanish once again encountered Islam, but this time in Southeast Asia and in order to incorporate the Philippines, Spanish expeditions organised from newly Christianised Mexico had invaded the Philippine territories of the Sultanate of Brunei. The 13th century also witnessed the Crown of Aragon, centred in Spain's north east, expand its reach across islands in the Mediterranean, to Sicily and Naples. Spain is an important place for Catholicism. [105] On 19 June 2014, the monarch, Juan Carlos, abdicated in favour of his son, who became Felipe VI. The Mediterranean heritage with Greco-Roman and some Moorish and influences in Spain, especially in Andalusia, is still evident today. The name derives from Latin insula maior, "larger island"; later Maiorica, "the larger one" in comparison to Menorca, "the smaller one". International Film Festivals of Valladolid and San Sebastian are the oldest and more relevant in Spain. There are more than 200,000 migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa living in Spain, principally Senegaleses and Nigerians. [77] In the latter half of the 17th century, Spain went into a gradual decline, during which it surrendered several small territories to France and England; however, it maintained and enlarged its vast overseas empire, which remained intact until the beginning of the 19th century. One of the most famous is San Fermín, in Pamplona. Both offer a matchless number of attractions and their importance in commerce, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science, sports and arts contribute to their status as two of the world's major global cities. Ministerio de Industria, Turismo y Comercio; Logotipo del Ministerio. During this war, a new dynasty originating in France, the Bourbons, was installed. The regime remained chiefly "neutral" from a nominal standpoint in the Second World War (it briefly switched its position to "non-belligerent"), although it was sympathetic to the Axis and provided the Nazi Wehrmacht with Spanish volunteers in the Eastern Front. a supreme court, under the supreme court of Spain, which heads the judiciary in the autonomous community. Humanist Luis Vives worked in Spain during the Renaissance, as did Francisco de Vitoria (creator of the School of Salamanca and scholar on international law) and Bartolomé de las Casas. Recared, son of Liuvigild and brother of St. Hermengild, added religious unity to the political unity achieved by his father, accepting the Catholic faith in the Third Council of Toledo (589). The Treaty of Granada guaranteed religious tolerance towards Muslims,[62] for a few years before Islam was outlawed in 1502 in the Kingdom of Castile and 1527 in the Kingdom of Aragon, leading to Spain's Muslim population becoming nominally Christian Moriscos. [245], The levels of education are preschool education, primary education,[246] secondary education[247] and post-16 education[248]. As Renaissance New Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand centralised royal power at the expense of local nobility, and the word España, whose root is the ancient name Hispania, began to be commonly used to designate the whole of the two kingdoms. Spain claims the sovereignty over the Perejil Island, a small, uninhabited rocky islet located in the South shore of the Strait of Gibraltar. Theodoric I took part, with the Romans and Franks, in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, where Attila was routed. The Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) is the leading public agency dedicated to scientific research in the country. The Statutes of Autonomy establish the name of the community according to its historical and contemporary identity, the limits of its territories, the name and organisation of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy according to the constitution. Low-lying areas of the Canary Islands average above 18.0 °C (64.4 °F) during their coldest month, thus having a tropical climate. Crop areas were farmed in two highly diverse manners. Particularly noteworthy was the development in Almería—one of the most arid and desolate provinces of Spain—of winter crops of various fruits and vegetables for export to Europe. [228] The number of immigrants in Spain had grown up from 500,000 people in 1996 to 5.2 million in 2008 out of a total population of 46 million. The Reconquista (Reconquest) was the centuries-long period in which Christian rule was re-established over the Iberian Peninsula. It has many works of Renaissance and Baroque art, including a recumbent Christ by Gaspar Becerra, a staircase whose paintings were painted by unknown author (perhaps Velázquez) and they are considered of the masterpieces of Spanish illusionist painting, and Brussels tapestries inspired by paintings of Rubens.[37]. [98] The elections on 14 March were won by the PSOE, led by José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. The current provincial division structure is based—with minor changes—on the 1833 territorial division by Javier de Burgos, and in all, the Spanish territory is divided into 50 provinces. comarca) and the vegueries (sing. The Napoleonic conflict in Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable. [146] The United Kingdom relies on de facto arguments of possession by prescription in relation to the isthmus,[147] as there has been "continuous possession [of the isthmus] over a long period". Their ranks have since been bolstered by recent immigration, especially from Morocco and Algeria. During the 1980s the democratic restoration made possible a growing open society. [35][36], The Muslim community in the Iberian Peninsula was itself diverse and beset by social tensions. Callaghan O.F Joseph. [11] Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. The group that has become known as the Generation of 1898 was marked by the destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by US gunboats in 1898, which provoked a cultural crisis in Spain. The 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition and the 1870 Barcelona Labour Congress are good examples of this. [229][230] In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people. [129] Violence against women was a problem, which the Government took steps to address. In 1793, Spain went to war against the revolutionary new French Republic as a member of the first Coalition. The Spanish constitution enshrines secularism in governance, as well as freedom of religion or belief for all, saying that no religion should have a "state character," while allowing for the state to "cooperate" with religious groups. As a result, it has become one of the most internationally renowned fiestas in Spain, with over 1,000,000 people attending every year. Other sources suggest 200,000 converts mostly after the pogroms of 1391 and upwards of 100,000 expelled. The kings and the nobility fought for power and influence in this period. Spanish art, architecture, cuisine, and music have been shaped by successive waves of foreign invaders, as well as by the country's Mediterranean climate and geography. The Napoleonic War left Spain economically ruined, deeply divided and politically unstable. Angel Alañón & M. Gómez-Antonio, [Estimating the size of the shadow economy in Spain: a structural model with latent variables], Energy in Sweden, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, (in Swedish: Energiläget i siffror), Table for figure 49. [100] In 2005 the Spanish government legalised same sex marriage. Besides the Perejil Island, the Spanish-held territories claimed by other countries are two: Morocco claims the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla and the plazas de soberanía islets off the northern coast of Africa. The lion's share of that investment—€4 billion—went to the country's auto industry.[170]. Having conquered these, they turned their arms against the Byzantines, who treacherously slew their leaders; but for this treachery, the Spaniards, under Bernard of Rocafort and Berenguer of Entenca, exacted the terrible penalty celebrated in history as "The Catalan Vengeance" and seized the Frankish Duchy of Athens (1311). The airport of Barcelona (El Prat) is also important, with 35 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 31st-busiest airport. Approximately 80,000 Jews are thought to have lived in Spain prior to its expulsion. [citation needed], During the Golden Age painters working in Spain included El Greco, José de Ribera, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo and Francisco Zurbarán. Spain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies, especially Latin America and North Africa. During the Second Republic there was a great political and social upheaval, marked by a sharp radicalization of the left and the right. Spanish mysticism provided an important intellectual resource against Protestantism with Carmelites like Teresa of Ávila, a reformist nun and John of the Cross, a priest, taking the lead in their reform movement. Spain includes different phytogeographic regions, each with its own floristic characteristics resulting largely from the interaction of climate, topography, soil type and fire, biotic factors. The ten most populous islands of Spain (2019): Mainland Spain is a mountainous country, dominated by high plateaus and mountain chains. The Generation of '50 are also known as the children of the civil war. Similarly, in Ceuta Darija Arabic is spoken by a significant percentage of the population. The country has a very large wind power capability built up over many years and is one of the world leaders in wind power generation. [31] The Spanish-Gothic scholars such as Braulio of Zaragoza and Isidore of Seville played an important role in keeping the classical Greek and Roman culture. Turismo extranjero. [k] Over time, large Moorish populations became established, especially in the Guadalquivir River valley, the coastal plain of Valencia, the Ebro River valley and (towards the end of this period) in the mountainous region of Granada. It remained neutral during World War I (see Spain in World War I). The country's national football team won the UEFA European Football Championship in 1964, 2008 and 2012 and the FIFA World Cup in 2010, and is the first team ever to win three back-to-back major international tournaments. The range has also been declared a biosphere reserve. [194] Should the aims of the ambitious AVE programme (Spanish high speed trains) be met, by 2020 Spain will have 7,000 km (4,300 mi) of high-speed trains linking almost all provincial cities to Madrid in less than three hours and Barcelona within four hours. The Monastery of Las Descalzas Reales resides in the former palace of King Charles I of Spain and Isabel of Portugal. Aquí encuentra una amplia selección de ofertas para conocer la España esencial y más auténtica, así como vuelos regulares y de bajo coste, circuitos, hoteles y coches de alquiler a los mejores precios.. LAS REGIONES DE ESPAÑA. The Spanish Armed Forces are divided into three branches:[154], Military conscription was suppressed in 2001.[155]. Actresses Sara Montiel and Penélope Cruz or actor Antonio Banderas are among those who have become Hollywood stars. In 1229 Majorca was conquered, so was Valencia in 1238. The Catalans and Aragonese offered themselves to the Byzantine Emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus to fight the Turks. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. Theme Parks like Terra Mítica, Tibidabo Amusement Park, Tivoli World and the resort PortAventura World or diverse water-fun parks are also popular. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth until the beginning of the 21st century, that started a new globalised world with economic and ecological challenges. The king Alfonso X of Castile focused on strengthening this Roman and Gothic past, and also on linking the Iberian Christian kingdoms with the rest of medieval European Christendom. In the late 19th century nationalist movements arose in the Philippines and Cuba. The Cabrera Archipelago is administratively grouped with Majorca (in the municipality of Palma). The violent acts during this period included the burning of churches, the 1932 failed coup d'état led by José Sanjurjo, the Revolution of 1934 and numerous attacks against rival political leaders. St. Augustine became a strategic defensive base for Spanish ships full of gold and silver sailing to Spain. [235] What the programme failed to do, the sharp and prolonged economic crisis has done from 2010 to 2011 in that tens of thousands of immigrants have left the country due to lack of jobs. Portugal stance has been the territory being de iure Portuguese territory and de facto Spanish.[151]. Description. [238], Spanish (español)— recognised in the constitution as Castilian (castellano)—is the official language of the entire country, and it is the right and duty of every Spaniard to know the language. It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or autonomous community and the Spanish level which makes the identity question in Spain complex and far from univocal. The International style was led by groups like GATEPAC. However, well-publicised concerns issued by many economic commentators at the height of the boom warned that extraordinary property prices and a high foreign trade deficit were likely to lead to a painful economic collapse. Various regional styles of folk music abound in Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Castile, the Basque Country, Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias. Some scholars consider the initial period of the Spanish conquest— from Columbus's first landing in the Bahamas until the middle of the sixteenth century—as marking the most egregious case of genocide in the history of mankind. The decline culminated in a controversy over succession to the throne which consumed the first years of the 18th century. The Islamic transmission of the classics is the main Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Madrid is considered one of the top European destinations concerning art museums. On 5 July 2013, Spain sent a letter to the UN expressing these views.[149][150]. [196] Spain's population density, at 91/km2 (235/sq mi), is lower than that of most Western European countries and its distribution across the country is very unequal. [265], Francisco Goya painted during a historical period that includes the Spanish Independence War, the fights between liberals and absolutists, and the rise of contemporary nations-states. [citation needed]. Other agricultural products that benefited from irrigation included grapes, cotton, sugar beets, potatoes, legumes, olive trees, mangos, strawberries, tomatoes, and fodder grasses. Currently there are around 62,000 Jews in Spain, or 0.14% of the total population. While still driven by the national and existential questions that obsessed the writers of '98, they approached these topics with a greater sense of distance and objectivity. The most notable were Miguel Servet, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Narcís Monturiol, Celedonio Calatayud, Juan de la Cierva, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, Margarita Salas and Severo Ochoa. This same study shows that of the Spaniards who identify themselves as religious, 59% hardly ever or never go to church, 16% go to church some times a year, 9% some time per month and 15% every Sunday or multiple times per week. 14 Spanish Society and Economics in the Imperial Age", "A Country Study: Spain – Spain in Decline", "Caciquismo y mundo rural durante la Restauración", "Relatives of Spaniards who fled Franco granted citizenship", "US to clean up Spanish radioactive site 49 years after plane crash", "El contubernio que preparó la democracia", "Speech by Mrs Nicole FONTAINE, President of the European Parliament on the occasion of the presentation of the Sakharov Prize 2000 to Basta ya! In the field of classical music, Spain has produced a number of noted composers such as Isaac Albéniz, Manuel de Falla and Enrique Granados and singers and performers such as Plácido Domingo, José Carreras, Montserrat Caballé, Alicia de Larrocha, Alfredo Kraus, Pablo Casals, Ricardo Viñes, José Iturbi, Pablo de Sarasate, Jordi Savall and Teresa Berganza. Pop, rock, hip hop and heavy metal are also popular. The constitution also establishes that "the other Spanish languages"—that is, the other languages of Spain—will also be official in their respective autonomous communities in accordance to their Statutes, their organic regional legislations, and that the "richness of the distinct linguistic modalities of Spain represents a patrimony which will be the object of special respect and protection."[239]. 5 The Rise of Aragon-Catalonia", "Los judíos en la España medieval: de la tolerancia a la expulsión", "The Christian Church from the 1st to the 20th Century", "Spanish Inquisition left genetic legacy in Iberia", "A Country Study: Spain – The Golden Age", "Notes on Entering Deen Completely: Islam as its followers know it", "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. [21], Intermarriage between Visigoths and Hispano-Romans was prohibited, though in practice it could not be entirely prevented and was eventually legalised by Liuvigild. The most popular Spanish mainland coasts are on its Mediterranean side, and include, from north to south clockwise: Spain's two archipelagoes, the Balearic Islands off the mainland coast in the Mediterranean and the volcanic Canary Islands in the Atlantic, are also both very popular destinations with Spaniards and Europeans. [184] Other renewable energies used in Spain are hydroelectric, biomass and marine (2 power plants under construction). The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for water sports, golf and skiing. Europe on Track", "Spain has developed Europe's largest high-speed rail network | Olive Press Newspaper", "La Moncloa. In the 1830s and 1840s, Carlism (a reactionary legitimist movement supportive of the branch issued from Carlos María Isidro of Bourbon, younger brother of Ferdinand VII), fought against the cristinos or isabelinos (supportive of Queen Isabella II, daughter of Ferdinand VII) in the Carlist Wars. The Glosas Emilianenses (found at the Monasteries of San Millán de la Cogolla and written in Latin, Basque and Romance) hold a great value as one of the first written examples of Iberian Romance.[43]. The green is in reflection of the neighbouring Royal Botanical Gardens. More than half of the irrigated area was planted in corn, fruit trees, and vegetables. [citation needed], Artists from Spain have been highly influential in the development of various European and American artistic movements. [192] On average, the Spanish high-speed train is the fastest one in the world, followed by the Japanese bullet train and the French TGV. Apart from paintings and sculptures it displays 10th-century Byzantine enamel; Arab and Byzantine ivory chests; Hellenistic, Roman, medieval, renaissance, baroque and romantic jewelry; Pisanello and Pompeo Leoni medals; Spanish and Italian ceramics; Italian and Arab clothes and a collection of weapons including the sword of Pope Innocent VIII. The World Tourism Organization has its headquarters in Madrid. [citation needed]. Some important philosophers at the time were Averroes, Ibn Arabi and Maimonides. [267] Later Arab style architecture continued to be developed under successive Islamic dynasties, ending with the Nasrid, which built its famed palace complex in Granada. [200], Native Spaniards make up 88% of the total population of Spain. Meat production for domestic consumption became the single most important agricultural activity, accounting for 30% of all farm-related production in 1983. This was an Age of Discovery, with daring explorations by sea and by land, the opening-up of new trade routes across oceans, conquests and the beginnings of European colonialism. The war claimed the lives of over 500,000 people and caused the flight of up to a half-million citizens from the country. Germana de Foix also finished with the revolt in the Mediterranean. [104] As prime minister, he continued to implement austerity measures required by the EU Stability and Growth Pact. Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España (Spain) took its name. It is sponsored by the Catalan-Balearic bank la Caixa and located next to the Salón del Prado. In 2015 Spain was the 8th largest automobile producer country in the world and the 2nd largest car manufacturer in Europe after Germany. There are also sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Middle Eastern, South Asian and Chinese origin. Número de turistas. A constitution for the country was passed in October 1931 following the June 1931 Constituent general election, and a series of cabinets presided by Manuel Azaña supported by republican parties and the PSOE followed. [130][131], Spain provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT community. There are 47 public airports in Spain.

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